Biochemical Oncology for Personalized and Precision Medicine

Document Type : Letter to the Editor


Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shamas University, Cairo, Egypt


2030). Chemotherapy normo-toxicity as well as multidrug cancer cell resistance raise the debate of “Die Another Day” or “Die Another Way”. This mandates identification of chemo-preventive and/or chemo therapeutic agent(s) that can target most, if not all, “Cancer Hallmarks”, translated into “Drug-Resistance Hallmarks”, in a way that regulates the proliferation of unwanted cancer cells, with minimal side effects or multi-organ toxicity, with prolonged overall survival. 
This can be achieved via cutting-edge research such as site-specific delivery cargos, specific rocket targeting using nanotechnology, the use of natural compounds and drug repurposing. This would achieve a green environment in drug design and development, which is the central focus of “Biochemical Oncology Field” for cancer management. This includes cell signaling pathways, maintaining a balance between cell proliferation and death, stemness of cancer cells, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, dysregulation of the cell cycle, tyrosine kinase growth factor signaling pathways. Understanding of these biochemical signatures in cancer would open a new avenue to control altered drug metabolism, featured by “Tumor Micro-Environment”. 
Keeping in mind, first, that no single drug can target all cancer hallmarks, affect drug metabolism, drug resistance. Second, no single treatment can target all cancer types or can fit all cancer patients or even one patient with a variety of concomitant diseases or different environmental stressors! Hence, the design and production of chemo-preventive agents acting on these particular molecular targets are of great interest for cancer treatment personalization and precision medicine (Figure 1).


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