Document Type : Original Article
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt
Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains one of the most important diseases that threaten human health worldwide. Hence, there is a great demand for a safe and effective treatment. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of extracts of the aerial parts of four Egyptian flora namely Moringa oleifera Lam, Morus nigra L., Tagetes patula L. leaves and Atriplex halimus L on T2D using Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. Material and Methods: A high sugar diet (HSD) was used to induce T2D in Drosophila larvae. The four plants were subjected to phytochemical screening. Plant extracts were dissolved with the control diet at a concentration of 1x104 µg/ml. Glimepiride (Amaryl®) drug at concertation of 80 µg/ml was used in the diet as a marker. Titers of glucose and trehalose were measured in the larval whole body and hemolymph in HSD-induced and plant extract-treated larvae along with the controls. The weight of larvae was also recorded. Results: Theresults revealed that HSD significantly increased the titer of glucose and trehalose in the larval whole body compared with the control. The larvae fed on HSD lost an amount of their weight compared with the control. The plant extracts of M. oleifera, A. halimus, and T. patula induced a significant decline in the whole-body glucose and trehalose. Regarding the larval weight, M. nigra, A. halimus, and T. patula extracts induced larvae to regain their weight. Phytochemical screening of the tested plants revealed the presence of several constituents such as carbohydrates, glycosides, sterols and/or triterpenes, catechol tannins and flavonoids. Conclusion: The tested plant extracts, particularly A. halimus can recover and improve the symptoms of T2D in Drosophila.