Correlating DNMT1, PCNA, and RB1 genes as new prognostic biomarkers

Document Type : Original Article


1 1. Division of Oral Biology, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA 2. Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Ministry of scientific Research, Cairo, Egypt

2 Medical biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine ,Kafrelsheikh University

3 Hepatology, Gastroenterology and Infectious Diseases Department, Faculty of Medicine ,Kafrelsheikh University

4 Clinical and chemical pathology Department, Faculty of medicine, Misr University for Sciences and Technology, Giza, Egypt

5 Medical Biochemistry, ART Unit, International Islamic Center for Population Studies and Research, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

6 Clinical pathology Department, Faculty of medicine. Menoufia University

7 Clinical pathology Department, Faculty of medicine, Al-Alazhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

8 -Biology department, faculty of Science and Arts, Albaha University, KSA -Zoology Department, faculty of science, Alazhar University, Egypt

9 Lecturer of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Newgiza University, Giza,Egypt

10 Lecturer of medicine, School of Medicine, Newgiza University, Giza,Egypt.

11 Clinical and chemical pathology Department, Faculty of medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be successfully treated, and long-term survival rates can be significantly improved if diagnosed early enough. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the onset and progression of HCC is critical for developing early detection methods and cutting-edge treatments. Objectives: To establish DNMT1 as a noninvasive biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of HCV-induced HCC, we investigated how DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), which controls DNA methylation patterns, is associated with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression levels and retinoblastoma susceptibility gene (RB1) expression levels in blood samples collected from HCV-induced HCC. Design & Methods: A total of 109 HCV patients were included in this study. DNMT1 levels were measured by ELISA. PCNA and RB1 gene expression were measured using real-time PCR. Results: DNMT1 levels increased consistently and significantly in all patients as the disease progressed toward the stage of HCC. As the disease progresses, PCNA and RB1 decrease gradually. DNMT1, PCNA, and RB1 were also able to discriminate between the studied groups in terms of their diagnostic abilities. As well, the DNMT1 gene may be a prognostic or predictive factor for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. PCNA and RB1 can also be used as prognostic and predictive markers for HCC. Conclusions: The diagnostic and prognostic results demonstrated that DNMT1, RB1, and PCNA could be useful biomarkers for detecting and predicting HCC in patients with HCV infection.


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